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重提消灭雇佣劳动,重提劳动者解放

作 者:景祥关注:19发表时间:2018-06-25 15:38:02

社会主义的最初涵义,就是通过消灭雇佣劳动,解放社会最底层的劳动者,从而让整个人类社会都获得平等的社会地位,公平地享受到社会进步,包括物质产品与精神产品的进步的一切成果。从社会主义思潮产生的那一个时代起,无论是哪一种流派的社会主义,无不看到了雇佣劳动的所造成的人的异化,人的社会地位的不平等,以及雇佣劳动在道德上的卑污。但是,现在人们似乎忘记了这个信念,忘记了这个理想,再也不提劳动者的解放!

    事实上,雇佣劳动就是在经济方面实行资本的专制的生产制度。

    在企业里,雇佣劳动让企业主在整个的生产过程和分配过程中,垄断了一切的权力(在西方则是垄断了大部分或者部分的权利),而劳动者却没有任何的对生产过程和分配过程进行控制或者干预的权利(在西方则可能是仅有部分的或者很少的权利)。

    我们看看目前中国许多私营(包括外资)企业中的情况,就能马上理解雇佣劳动就是在经济方面实行资本的专制的生产制度这一论断。在这些企业里,那些与雇佣劳动者(劳动者)利益紧密相关的权益,劳动者是丝毫不能与企业的所有者们平等分享的:

    分配的决策权。企业所创造的价值(或者称为劳动果实吧),它的分配的决定权完全操控在企业所有的手中,劳动者的工资和其他福利(包括保险)的水平,完全由企业主们决定,工人事实上没有议价的权利。是,企业所创造的价值,本来是劳动与资本共同作用的结果(共同作用的结果并非说资本也能够创造价值,而是说资本对于劳动创造价值具有作用。资本并不创造价值,而只是具有价值)。从公平的意义上来说,唯有劳资双方在价值分配上实行共决才是符合公平正义的。

    生产过程中的民主参与权。不仅企业价值的分配与劳动者的利益紧密相关,生产过程中,企业规章制度的制订,也与劳动者的利益紧密相关。在中国的私营企业中,企业主基本完全垄断了制订工厂规章制度的权利,他们可以随意规定劳动者每天的劳动时间长短,可以随意决定对工人的经济处罚,可以随意限制工人在工作时间去洗手间,可以随意解雇任何一位他们看不惯的工人。这些企业主们掌握的这些不公平的权力,在习惯了资本文化的人和自由主义者们(在美国则是保守主义者)看来是理所当然的,因为他们认为企业主必须为他们的企业资产负责,为他们的资本风险负责。但是,殊不知这却是违背道德、违背公平理念的。劳动者选择进入企业打工,无非是因为生活所迫,他们不进工厂干活就要全家饿肚子。而企业主们却乘人之危,胁迫劳动者服从他们的绝对权威,放弃人皆有之的自由价值。这不能不再受到人类文明的谴责和反对。所以,只要资本需要劳动,劳动者就不能不为自己的尊严、权利和利益向资本去争取。

   自由主义者们往往认为企业经营策略的制订与执行、企业资本积累和资本的增减都是企业主的事情,它应当由企业主和市场决定。但是,企业经营策略的制订与执行,甚至企业资本积累等问题,也都与劳动者的利益紧密相关。因为这些问题关系到企业的生存和发展,自然也就关系到劳动者的就业稳定和他们福利保障的稳固。因此,劳动者不能把自己的生存和幸福问题完全交由资本方掷骰子。

    把一切都交给资本决定,资本成为统治工厂、统治生产过程和垄断分配的权证,劳动沦落成资本的奴隶,劳资之间的关系实际上成为主仆关系、奴役与被奴役的关系,这就是雇佣劳动的本质!它集中了人类的反平等、反公平、反道德这些最卑污的东西!

    现有的文献显示,西方的社会,由于一百多年以来不断的工人运动,各国工人阶级不同程度争得了一些权利;特别是在瑞典、挪威、丹麦、芬兰等一些北欧国家,工人已经开始分享曾经是资方独享的一些权利,他们获得了与资方集体议价的权利、参与企业管理决策的权利、占有企业股份的权利等等。这些权利的获得,已经在悄悄地改变了雇佣劳动制度,使其逐步地变雇佣劳动劳资合作生产。在其它欧洲国家,虽然不如北欧国家进步巨大,但是以工会为劳方利益代表的资方集体议价制度已经普遍实施,工人已经可以不同程度地对企业的经营管理进行一定程度的干预。

    不过我们也看到,一些欧美国家的工会组织似乎也忘记了消灭雇佣劳动和解放劳动者的伟大信念和理想。他们往往满足于增加工资斗争的胜利。但是,增加工资和福利并不能够改变工人与资本家之间的本质上的主仆关系,不能改变受资本压迫奴役的命运。单纯工资的增加也最终要被物价的潮水吞没。因为资本总是希望利润得到保障,工人工资的增加最终要通过物价的上涨来抵消。工人收入和福利的增长,必须通过控制对企业利润的分配来获得。一句话:未来的社会生产关系要让资本家不要挣得太多了,也不能让劳动者挣得太少了!劳资之间多少的问题应当提供劳资之间平等的谈判获得平衡,切企业所创造的价值的这块蛋糕的刀子,应当由劳资共同掌握。劳资之间自愿同意的分配就是公平的分配。这样的分配,可以真正实现了劳动者为了自己的福利而劳动,而不再是为了资方的利润在劳动。这样的生产不再是雇佣劳动,而是劳资之间平等的合作生产。

    中国社会公平公正的实行和劳动者解放的路还很漫长,工人阶级的阶级意识、公民权利意识和团结意识还有待培养与增进。但是,世界先进国家工人斗争的经验将有助于中国工人阶级的成长。在中国工人阶级成长和斗争的过程中,消灭雇佣劳动,争取劳动者从资本的压迫下的解放,应当成为中国工人阶级的明确目标!

    雇佣劳动不仅存在于私营企业,国有企业也可能蜕变成为专制统治集团的企业。在这样的企业中,劳动者依然可能缺少与企业(背后实质上是专制统治集团)进行议价的权利,缺少参与企业民主管理和决策的权利。这样的企业,其生产关系依然是雇佣劳动。所以,是不是雇佣劳动,与企业的所有制没有关系。消灭雇佣劳动并不是要消灭私人资本(至少人类还将在比较长的时间内需要资本),而是要通过与资本共享企业的统治权让雇佣劳动自然终结。所以,消灭雇佣劳动的过程就是劳动者作为企业中的公民,获得企业公民权利的过程,是通过和平、民主的手段不断在自由选举和立法方面不断争取的过程。这个过程是把政治民主向经济民主的自然延伸,但经济民主是比政治民主更加本质,因为政治的目的就是经济。因此我们绝不能只要政治民主却不要经济民主,否则那仅仅是虚假的民主。

    中国目前的法律已经支持签订集体合同。政府已经颁布了《集体合同规定》,在其它法律如《劳动法》、《劳动合同法》中也规定企业的规章制度应当经过职工代表大会的讨论。这些制度和规定虽然还不能完全看作集体议价制度,但是可以把它们看成成熟的集体议价制度的起点。站在这个起点,我们中国工人应当和全世界的劳动者联合在一起,共同朝着消灭雇佣劳动的方向前进,最终实现把劳动者从资本奴役之下的解放!没有全世界劳动者的联合,就不会有这个解放,因为资本总是喜欢钻向劳动者斗争力量最薄弱的国家,这样它既可以更多地榨取利润,又可以给劳动者斗争力量最强大的国家的工人形成就业压力。从这个方面说,任何一个国家的劳动者要最终获得完全的公平公正和解放,都依赖整个人类社会公平公正发展的进程。

    全世界劳动者的联合万岁!

 

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Once againraising the question of the elimination of wage labor and theliberation of workers

 

Jing Xiang

  

       The original meaning of socialism wasto achieve the liberation of the working class through theelimination of wage labor. This would allow for a completeequalization of social status for all of humanity, and for allpeople to fairly enjoy the material and spiritual fruits ofsocial progress. From the time of the emergence of socialistthought, all branches of socialism have recognized thealienation, social inequality and moral filth which result fromwage labor. However, today it is almost as if people haveforgotten these beliefs, forgotten this ideal and no longerbring up the liberation of workers!

       In reality, from an economicstandpoint wage labor means the realization of the autocracy ofcapital in the system of production.

       Within the enterprise, wage laborallows the boss to monopolize all power over the labor processand distribution (in the West, they have majority or partialmonopolization over these powers). On the other hand, workers donot have any power to control or intervene in the processes ofproduction and distribution (in the West they may have some orjust a little bit of power).

       If we look at the situation in manyprivate (and foreign) enterprises in China, we can immediatelyunderstand the argument that “from an economic standpoint wagelabor mean the realization of the autocracy of capital in thesystem of production.” Within these enterprises, we can see thatworkers absolutely cannot equally share control over thefollowing things, all of which impinge directly upon theirinterests:

      DistributionRights

      The rights to determine thedistribution of value produced by an enterprise (which could becalled the “fruits of labor”) are completely controlled by theowners of the enterprise. Workers’ wages and other benefits(including insurance) are completely determined by the boss, andworkers do not have any negotiation rights. However, the valueproduced by an enterprise results from the common functions oflabor and capital. However, this “common functioning” is not tosay that capital can produce value, but rather that capital hasa function in allowing labor to produce value. Capital does notproduce value, but it is just that it contains value. Only amethod whereby labor and capital both determine the distributionof value conforms to ideas of fairness and justice.  

       Rightsto Democratic Participation in the Labor Process

       Not only the distribution of value,but also the process by which enterprise rules are determined isdirectly related to the interests of workers. In privateenterprises in China, factory management has almost a completemonopoly on the rights to determine factory rules. They candetermine at will the length of workers’ shifts, arbitrarilyimpose monetary fines, restrict workers from using the bathroomand fire any workers that they do not like. This unfair powerwhich is held by enterprise management is seen as completelynormal by those who are accustomed to capitalism and liberalism [1] ,because they believe that management must take responsibilityfor the company’s property and risks associated with capitalinvestment. However, these people can hardly imagine that thisviolates concepts of morality and fairness. Workers choose toenter the enterprise because of living requirements: if theydidn’t toil in the factory than their whole family would gohungry. Enterprise managers take advantage of people’s difficultsituation and demand that workers obey their ultimate authority,thereby abandoning the free value that all people have. Thismust be condemned and opposed by human civilization. Hence, aslong as capital requires labor, workers must not fail tostruggle with capital for their respect, rights and interests.

       Liberals frequently believe that thedetermination and implementation of enterprise strategy andoperation, as well as capital accumulation and losses aremanagement’s business, and that these things should be decidedby management and the market. However, the determination andimplementation of enterprise strategy and operation, and evenquestions of capital accumulation, impinge directly on theinterests of workers. Because these matters are related to thesurvival and development of the enterprise, they naturally arerelated to the stability of workers’ employment and welfare.Thus, workers cannot roll the dice by handing control over theirexistence and happiness to capital.

       Allowing capital to decide everythinggives them the power to control the factory, the productionprocess and to monopolize the rights to distribution. Laborbecomes the slave of capital, and labor-capital relations infact become one of master and servant, enslaver and enslaved,and this is the true essence of wage labor! This systemconcentrates the unequal, unfair and amoral filth of humankind!

       Existing literature reveals that inthe West, as a result of more than 100 years of the workersmovement, the working classes in various countries have won afew rights. Especially in the Scandinavian countries of Sweden,Norway, Denmark and Finland, workers can now enjoy some of therights which used to exclusively belong to capital. They havewon the rights to engage in collective bargaining, toparticipate in enterprise management and to own stock in thecompany. The attainment of these rights has quietly changed thesystem of wage labor, causing it to gradually change from “wagelabor” to “labor-capital cooperative production.” In otherEuropean countries, although they have not had as much progressas Scandinavian countries, the system of collective bargainingwith unions as the representative of labor has been widelyimplemented. Workers thus have the ability to exert varyingdegrees of control over enterprise operations and management.

       However, we can see that the tradeunions in some Western countries have already forgotten themighty belief and ideal of the elimination of wage labor and theliberation of workers. They are frequently satisfied with thevictory of increasing wages. However, increasing wages andbenefits cannot change the fundamental master-servantrelationship which exists between workers and capital, and doesnot change the fate of being enslaved by capital. Simpleincreases in wages will eventually be swallowed up by increasesin the cost of living. Because capital always hopes to protectprofit, increases in workers’ wages eventually will be reducedby increases in the cost of goods. Increases in workers’ wagesand benefits must come through control over the distribution ofenterprise profits. Social relations of production in the futureshould allow capitalists to not earn too much and workers to notearn too little. Problems between labor and capital should beresolved by equal bargaining, and the knife used to divide thecake of enterprise profits should be equally held by labor andcapital. Fair distribution is that which labor and capital caneach agree to. This type of distribution can truly realizeworkers laboring for their own benefits, as opposed to laboringfor the boss’ profit. This type of production is no longer wagelabor, but is equal cooperative production between labor andcapital.  

        The road to realizing the fair andjust liberation of workers in China is long. Working classconsciousness as well as citizen’s rights consciousness andsolidarity all need to be developed and advanced. However, theexperience of workers’ struggles in advanced countries is usefulfor advancing the development of the Chinese working class. Inthe process of the Chinese working class’ struggle, theelimination of wage labor and the liberation of workers from theoppression of capital should be the clear goal of the Chineseworking class.

       Wage labor does not exist only inprivate enterprises, as state owned enterprises may have alsodecayed into authoritarian organizations. In these enterprises,workers still lack bargaining rights, and lack the rights toparticipate in the democratic management and policy making ofthe enterprise. The production relations in this sort ofenterprise still count as wage labor. Hence, whether or not wagelabor exists is not related to the enterprise’s form ofownership. The elimination of wage labor is not equivalent tothe elimination of private capital (society will still requirecapital for a significant amount of time), but rather is thenatural conclusion of sharing the rights to control theenterprise with management. Thus, the process of the eliminationof wage labor results in workers becoming citizens within theenterprise. Attaining citizenship rights in the enterprise comesfrom a process in which peaceful, democratic means arecontinuously used in free elections and legislation. Thisprocess is a natural extension of political democracy towardseconomic democracy, but economic democracy is even morefundamental than political democracy because the purpose ofpolitics is economics.

       Current Chinese law already supportsthe signing of collective contracts. The government haspromulgated “Collective Contract Regulations,” and it isstipulated in the “Labor Contract Law” and the “Labor Law” thatenterprise regulations should be discussed in the Staff andWorkers Congress. Although these systems and regulations cannotbe completely viewed as a system of collective bargaining, butthey can be seen as a starting point for a mature collectivebargaining system. From this starting point, us Chinese workersshould unite with workers from around the world, and move in thedirection of the elimination of wage labor to eventuallyliberate workers from enslavement by capital! Without the globalunity of workers, there can be no such liberation, becausecapital always likes to go to the countries where the workers’struggle is the weakest. This allows them to extract more profitand to apply pressure to workers in the countries where thestrength of struggle is greater. From this perspective, in orderfor the workers of every country in the world to eventuallyattain complete fairness, justice and liberation, all ofhumankind must develop and progress fairly.

       Workers of the world unite!


 


[1] Translatorsnote: “Liberal” in this essay refers not to the Americanusage of the word, but to classical liberalism. 


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